Context: The Green Line

The Green Line refers to the 1949 armistice lines established between Israel and its Arab neighbors in the aftermath of Israel’s 1948 War of Independence. The war led to Israel’s sovereignty over 78.5% of historic Palestine, referred to as “Israel inside the Green Line.”

The 1967 Six-Day War again changed the geopolitical landscape and resulted in the territories beyond the Green Line falling under Israeli authority. Internationally, these areas are not recognized as part of Israel. The United Nations called for “withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” as well as “acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.”

Shortly after the war, Israel unilaterally annexed East Jerusalem and, in 1981, unilaterally annexed the Golan Heights, which was previously part of Syria. (Israel had “seized” the Golan Heights in 1967.)